What is Additive manufacturing or 3D printing?
Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is the process of creating a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or digital 3D model. In an additive manufacturing process, layers of material are added one at a time until the final product is produced. Materials can be combined, deposited, and solidified using a variety of computer-controlled processes in this process. The materials being combined could be formed of plastics, liquids, or grains of powder that are being fused, among other things. Abaqus AM modeler is fully described in this training package.
Additive Manufacturing or 3D Printing simulation in ABAQUS
Why is Abaqus needed to simulate 3D printing? We do different simulations for the same reasons. examining the model’s deflection, the temperature, and thermal conditions, the presence of any residual stress, etc. To prevent wasting money, it is also a good idea to check that the printer’s settings match the requirements of our model before printing. conditions such as temperature and material characteristics, etc.
This package will show you how to replicate the 3D printing process using the Abaqus AM modeler plug-in, which was created by Dassault Systemes.
Using the Abaqus AM modeler plugin
The “AM Modeler” plug-in is a simple and user-friendly interface for simulating additive manufacturing, minimizing the risk of errors. Unlike coding or Python scripting, the plug-in only requires input of data, job creation, and simulation initiation. The plug-in uses two 3D printing simulation methods: eigenstrain and thermomechanical, each with different process types that cater to the user’s needs. The eigenstrain method has two process types: trajectory-based and pattern-based, while the thermomechanical method has four process types: trajectory-based powder bed fabrication, pattern-based powder bed fabrication, laser direct energy deposition, and fusion deposition modeling. The training package focuses on the thermomechanical method, which involves a sequential thermal-stress analysis of the additive manufacturing process. This involves a heat transfer analysis and a static structural analysis that uses temperature fields from the previous analysis. The simulation offers precise control over processing conditions in time and space, providing a comprehensive and realistic solution. However, the simulation becomes computationally expensive as mesh resolution and time increase. The heat transfer analysis includes simulating progressive material deposition and heating, as well as the cooling of the printed part. The stress analysis depends on temperatures from the heat transfer analysis, and it is possible to apply progressive material deposition methods similar to the heat transfer analysis. Temperature-dependent material properties can be used to obtain accurate stress results.
Workshops of the AM Modeler plug-in
This method involves three primary workshops: “Sequential thermomechanical analysis of simple cube one-direction LPBF 3D printing using the trajectory-based method with AM plug-in,” “3D printing simulation with Fusion deposition modeling and Laser direct energy deposition method with AM plug-in,” and “Material Removing with AM plug-in.” The first two workshops are done with two versions of the AM Modeler: an older and a newer version. The first workshop, which involves LPBF, is carried out using the older version, while the second workshop uses the newer version. The reason for using two versions is to familiarize the participants with both versions, in case they encounter either one.
Workshop 1: Sequential thermomechanical analysis of simple cube one-direction LPBF 3D printing using trajectory-based method with AM plug-in
Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is a 3D printing method that utilizes a high-powered laser to melt and fuse metal powders together layer by layer. The process involves spreading a layer of metal powder over a build platform using a roller, followed by scanning the powder with a high-powered laser to melt and fuse it together based on the 3D model. The platform is lowered, and the process is repeated layer by layer until the object is complete.
During the workshop, the model’s geometry and layer details are discussed, followed by presenting the required material properties. The necessary information and inputs for the roller and laser beam, including their speeds and “Event series” data, are provided. The boundary conditions are explained, and the modeling process in Abaqus begins. The simulation involves two analyses: a thermal analysis followed by a structural analysis. The required inputs, such as “Event series” data, are added via the AM Modeler plug-in. The simulation is performed using the older version of the plug-in, and the results are discussed in the end.
Workshop 2: 3D printing simulation with Fusion deposition modeling (FDM) and Laser direct energy deposition (LDED) method with AM plug-in
The Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a 3D printing technique that involves extruding melted filament layer by layer to create a 3D object. The process includes feeding a filament into a heated extruder (nozzle), which melts the filament and deposits it layer by layer onto a build platform based on the 3D model. The material cools and solidifies, creating the final object.
During the workshop, the model’s geometry, layering, and details such as bead dimensions are presented. Material properties are introduced, followed by the representation of nozzle data, including speed. All simulation steps are similar to the previous workshop, except for the AM Modeler part, which uses the newer plug-in version.
In both workshops, element progressive activation technique (Material Deposition) is used for material deposition, and a moving heat source is employed for heating. Both material deposition and moving heat source have several types, which are explained during the workshops.
Workshop 3: Material Removing with AM plug-in
This workshop introduces special-purpose techniques and user subroutines for machining and material removal processes that typically follow an additive manufacturing process. The workshop teaches participants how to perform a material removal process on a simple cube using a simulation approach. The simulation involves defining a bead and an event series, along with required special-purpose techniques called “ABQs.” The bead assigns the materials that require removal, the event series defines the toolpath trajectory, and the ABQs apply these settings. The simulation also includes the progressive element activation method in a structural or thermal analysis to deactivate the elements. To perform the simulation, the required settings are first configured using the AM Modeler plug-in, the input file is generated, and then some changes are made manually to the input file before running it.