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Dynamic Response of Ballasted Rail Track Under a Moving Load


Railway tracks are subjected to moving loads of trains and this causes vibration and degradation of the track. The judgment of these vibrations is important to design the railway tracks. The design involves the permissible speed of trains and the maximum axle load of the train. The model given here creates a 3D geometry of a railway track and applies a moving load in the form of a wheel. A user can change the speeds and the properties of the material including geometry as per their needs.

Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP) Cracking Analysis


The increasing adoption of continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) in highway pavement design is driven by its demonstrated superior performance. Critical to evaluating the long-term effectiveness of CRCP is the understanding of early-age cracks (CRCP crack analysis), which has garnered significant interest from highway departments. This Abaqus Continuously reinforced concrete pavement modeling project aims to establish precise design parameters for CRCP and analyze the formation of crack patterns. By accounting for stress factors such as environmental conditions and CRCP shrinkage modeling, the project offers valuable insights into predicting the likelihood of crack initiation and propagation within the concrete slab. These insights are instrumental in enhancing the durability and performance of CRCP structures, thus advancing the efficiency and effectiveness of highway infrastructure.

Laser forming simulation tutorial in Abaqus

The laser forming process is performed by applying thermal stresses to the workpiece surface by heating the surface with a laser beam. These internal stresses induce plastic strains in the part resulting in local elastic-plastic deformation (Laser-induced plastic deformation). In this laser forming simulation tutorial the DFLUX subroutine is used to apply heat flux (Gaussian heat distribution) dependent on location and time in finite element simulation. For example, the linear heating processes of laser forming and welding (with a slight simplification) can be simulated by this subroutine. In the linear heating process, by applying heat flux to the surface of a sheet, a thermal gradient is created in its thickness. This thermal gradient causes permanent deformation of the sheet. To simulate the laser forming process, it is necessary to apply a time and location-dependent heat flux to the sheet. In this type of loading, a heat flux is applied on the plate, which is defined using the DFLUX subroutine, including the laser power, movement speed, beam diameter, absorption coefficient, and laser movement path according to the designed experiments (Laser forming process parameters). To verify this Abaqus laser forming simulation, the simulation results and experimental results of sheet deformation (U) are compared. The displacement of the sheet in the simulation is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Friction Stir Welding simulation Tutorial | FSW Advanced level

Friction stir welding (FSW) involves complex material flow and plastic deformation. Welding parameters, tool geometry, etc., have important effects on the material flow pattern, heat distribution, and eventually on the structural evolution of the material. In an Abaqus friction stir welding example, the rotational movement of the tool and its friction in contact with the workpiece causes heat generation, loss of strength, and an increase in material ductility around the tool. The feeding movement of the tool causes the material to transfer from the front of the tool to the back of it, and eventually leads to a join. Therefore, heat plays an important role in this process, and parameters such as rotational speed, tool feeding speed, tool geometry, and others, all somehow have a significant impact on controlling the amount of incoming heat, the disturbance and flow pattern of the material, the evolution of the microstructure, and the quality of the resulted weld. This friction stir welding example simulation tutorial shows you how to simulate the Abaqus FSW simulation process in such a way that you can accurately predict the effect of all relevant parameters on the process. In most of the implemented projects, welding mud, and welding defects (welding overfills and overlaps, weld gaps) are not visible and predictable; however, in this simulation, these cases are visible. This project is designed to enhance participants' understanding of how to accurately simulate the FSW process to see the weld's general appearance.

Sloshing Simulation in Cylindrical Water Storage Tanks: An Abaqus Modeling Framework

Liquid storage tanks have many applications in water supply systems and industrial environments. However, seismic damages to these tanks present significant challenges. One of the well-known damages observed in tanks during earthquakes is roof fracture caused by liquid sloshing. Sloshing is a phenomenon that liquid surface moves during seismic events. In this project, we used ABAQUS for the sloshing simulation in ground-supported cylindrical tanks. The tank experiences the acceleration of the El-Centro earthquake. The Abaqus sloshing simulation involves the calculation of Rayleigh damping factors and natural frequencies, employing the ALE meshing technique, and incorporating hourglass controls in Abaqus. We have suggested two ways for the tank sloshing simulation: one involves assigning a low viscosity to the water, and the other is applying Rayleigh damping factors with the assumption of an inviscid fluid. For verification, we modeled a water tank and compared the results with those obtained in the following paper: “Parametric study on the dynamic behavior of cylindrical ground-supported tanks”

Cold Forming Simulation Using Abaqus CAE | Residual Stress Analysis

Have you ever heard of cold forming process? It refers to the reshaping of metals into desired forms at room temperature. It suits well for parts requiring high precision and a good surface finish.  While cold forming offers many advantages, it is important to consider the potential for residual stresses within the material. The residual stresses in cold-formed components can influence their behavior, potentially affecting the quality of the final product. Experimentally measuring these stresses can be challenging. Numerical simulations offer a solution for cold forming residual stress analysis. Among the available numerical methods, Abaqus cold forming simulation has gained significant attention from researchers and practitioners. This training explores Abaqus cold forming analysis in detail. It includes three workshops that cover different steps in the cold forming process. For validation purposes, we have compared the results for the numerical simulation of cold forming with a reference solution for each workshop.

Modal and Frequency Analysis in Abaqus | Abaqus modal Analysis

Modal analysis is a technique used to understand how structures and systems vibrate when subjected to forces. It identifies natural frequencies, which are frequencies at which a system vibrates without external excitation, and mode shapes, representing unique patterns of motion. Engineers use modal analysis simulation to design systems resistant to unwanted vibrations, preventing resonance and potential damage. Frequency response analysis evaluates a structure's reaction to specific excitations across varying frequencies, aiding in design optimization to mitigate fatigue damage caused by vibrations. In Abaqus software, Abaqus modal analysis identifies natural frequencies (Abaqus natural frequency) and mode shapes, while frequency response analysis predicts a structure's response to excitation across a frequency range. In Abaqus modal analysis tutorial package, there are several modal analysis examples (modal analysis example): Workshop 1 analyzes the natural frequency of a water transfer tube to predict resonance occurrence or potential issues from vibrations. Workshop 2 simulates the dynamic analysis of a frame under a sudden load, determining modes, natural frequencies, and transient dynamic response. Workshop 3 simulates free and forced vibrations of a wire under harmonic excitation, examining resonance phenomena with preloading and spring-damper configurations. These workshops demonstrate practical applications of modal and frequency response analyses in structural dynamics simulation and design.

Short fiber composite damage (Mean Field Homogenization Model)

Short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics, popular due to their strength, lightness, and cost-effectiveness, are often manufactured using injection molding to create complex parts with dispersed short fibers. However, failure in these materials is complex, involving mechanisms like fiber cracking and plastic deformation. Current models for damage and failure are either macroscopic or simplified. A new method tackles this challenge by evaluating stiffness using continuum damage mechanics with a multistep homogenization approach. This new method is called “Mean Field Homogenization”. This approach involves a two-stage process: first, the fibers are split into groups (grains). Then, mean-field homogenization is employed within Abaqus using a UMAT subroutine to average stiffness across these phases, followed by overall homogenization. This use of mean-field homogenization Abaqus simplifies the modeling of the composite's intricate geometry. The method was validated through testing on a distal radius plate. Calibration was achieved through experiments, and the simulation was performed using Abaqus finite element software. It's important to note that the Abaqus short fiber damage mean field homogenization process was implemented within Abaqus through the INP code.

Tread wear simulation in Abaqus

This training package provides a comprehensive exploration of tire tread wear, focusing on its simulation using the UMESHMOTION subroutine in ABAQUS. Tread wear, the gradual erosion of a tire's outer rubber surface, impacts crucial performance aspects like traction and handling. The package elucidates the importance of tread wear simulation, emphasizing safety, performance optimization, regulatory compliance, durability, cost efficiency, environmental impact, and consumer confidence. The UMESHMOTION subroutine, a key element in ABAQUS, is demystified through illustrative examples. Its application in modeling wear processes, specifically employing the Archard model, is highlighted—particularly in node movement specification during adaptive meshing. The workshop within this package delves into simulating tire wear at a speed of 32 km/h over 1000 hours, utilizing the UMESHMOTION subroutine and Archard equations. The tire modeling process, transitioning from axisymmetric to three-dimensional elements, is detailed, considering both slip and non-slip modes of movement. This resource serves as a valuable guide for professionals and enthusiasts seeking to understand and implement effective tread wear simulation techniques using advanced computational tools.

Hydroforming process simulation using VDLOAD subroutine in Abaqus

Dive into the intricacies of hydroforming simulation in Abaqus alongside the VDLOAD subroutine with our comprehensive guide. This tutorial delves into the essence of the Abaqus hydroforming simulation, unraveling the nuances of the hydroforming process simulation. Hydroforming, a specialized metal shaping technique applicable to diverse materials like steel, copper, and aluminum, is explored in depth. In the workshop component, we specifically focus on advanced hydroforming simulation using the VDLOAD subroutine, highlighting its pivotal role in specifying fluid pressure on sheet metal forming. Learn how to apply the Functional Fluid Pressure Loading feature for precise control over fluid pressure dynamics. Additionally, explore the Smooth Amplitude option for defining part displacement seamlessly, without introducing dynamic changes during problem-solving. Conclude your exploration with a comparative analysis of simulation outcomes, dissecting scenarios with and without fluid pressure using Abaqus hydroforming simulation. Engage in discussions on subroutine writing, delving into the intricacies of incorporating Fluid Pressure Loading into your simulations. This guide offers a natural progression through hydroforming and VDLOAD, providing valuable insights for efficient and accurate simulations.

Shape optimization in Abaqus

Shape optimization is employed towards the conclusion of the design process, when the overall structure of a component is established and only minor adjustments are permitted by relocating surface nodes in specific regions. In shape optimization, the displacements of the surface nodes (design nodes) serve as the design variables. The process commences with a finite element model that requires slight enhancements or with a finite element model derived from a topology optimization. In this training package, first, you will learn the concept of optimization and shape optimization in Abaqus. After that, all required settings to do a shape optimization, such as optimization task and design responses will be fully explained. And in the last lesson, you will learn how to create an optimization process and be familiar with the generated files by the shape optimization process.

Topology Optimization in Abaqus

Optimization is a fundamental concept used to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of systems, designs, and decisions. It finds application in various domains, including industrial processes, finance, and communication networks. In engineering, optimization plays a crucial role in improving the design of systems and structures by maximizing performance and minimizing costs, weight, or other parameters. Structural optimization specifically focuses on designing or modifying structures to meet performance criteria while minimizing or maximizing objectives such as strength, weight, cost, or efficiency. The Abaqus software provides comprehensive structural optimization capabilities, including topology, shape, sizing, and bead optimization. This training package primarily focuses on topology optimization. Through the lessons and workshops, you will gain insights into the tips, tricks, and techniques for effectively utilizing topology optimization within the Abaqus software.

3D printing simulation with Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) method in Abaqus

3D printing is a process of creating three-dimensional objects by layering materials, such as plastic or metal, based on a digital design. 3D printing simulation involves using software to predict and optimize the printing process, allowing for more efficient and accurate production. This educational package includes two 3D printing modeling methods. The first method is based on the use of subroutines and Python scripting. After an introduction to the 3D printing process, the first method with all of its detail is explained; then, there would be two workshops for this method; the first workshop is for the 3D printing simulation of a gear with uniform cross-section and the second one is for a shaft with non-uniform cross-section. The second method uses a plug-in called AM Modeler. With this plug-in, the type of 3D printing can be selected, and after inserting the required inputs and applying some settings, the 3D printing simulation is done without any need for coding. Two main workshops will be taught to learn how to use this plug-in: "Sequential thermomechanical analysis of simple cube one-direction with LPBF 3D printing method using the trajectory-based method with AM plug-in" and "3D printing simulation with Fusion deposition modeling and Laser direct energy deposition method with AM plug-in".

3D printing simulation with Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) in Abaqus

3D printing is the process of fabricating objects in three dimensions by adding layers of materials, such as plastic or metal, based on a digital design. Simulation for 3D printing involves the use of software to predict and optimize the printing process, enabling more efficient and precise production. This educational package includes a simulation specifically for 3D printing using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). The simulation employs a plug-in known as AM Modeler, which allows users to select the desired 3D printing method. By inputting the necessary parameters and adjusting settings, the 3D printing simulation can be performed without requiring any coding. A workshop will be conducted to teach participants how to utilize this plug-in effectively, focusing on "3D printing simulation with Fused Deposition Modeling and Laser Direct Energy Deposition method using the AM plug-in."

Curing process simulation in Abaqus

Fiber-reinforced composites have found widespread use across various fields due to their remarkable properties. This necessitates a careful design of their manufacturing processes to attain industrial application quality. The critical factor influencing their quality is the curing process, wherein the resin transforms into a solid state under temperature cycles. However, the challenge lies in achieving optimal curing quality while maintaining production efficiency. To overcome this challenge, an effective approach involves utilizing numerical simulations to optimize temperature cycles during curing. Nonetheless, creating such a model is complex as it must consider multiple factors concurrently, including temperature release from chemical reactions, shrinkage strains, and stress resulting from temperature variations, topics covered in this package. The package begins with an introduction to fiber-reinforced composites, exploring their advantages, applications, and categorization. It guides you through the fabrication process, detailing curing techniques and associated challenges. Furthermore, the package introduces constitutive equations for simulating the curing process and the necessary Abaqus subroutines for implementation. Additionally, two practical workshops are included to offer experience in modeling the curing process with Abaqus. These workshops enable you to evaluate internal heat generation and analyze strain and stress distributions. They not only provide guidance on simulation and subroutine implementation but also are provided for verification purposes.

FSI analysis in Abaqus

Notice: This package will be available one week after purchase. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) refers to the interaction between a deformable or movable structure and an internal or surrounding fluid flow. FSI simulations are vital for understanding and predicting the behavior of systems where fluid and solid components interact. These simulations enable engineers and researchers to study the effects of fluid forces on structures and vice versa. FSI simulations are crucial in various fields, including aerospace, civil engineering, biomechanics, and automotive industries. They provide valuable insights into the performance, safety, and reliability of engineering systems. By accurately modeling the complex interactions between fluids and structures, FSI simulations can identify potential issues such as vibrations, instabilities, and structural failures. In this package, you’ll learn simulating FSI in Abaqus within 3 workshops.

Different Techniques for Meshing in Abaqus

This package introduces different meshing techniques in Abaqus. In finite element analysis, a mesh refers to the division of a physical domain into smaller, interconnected subdomains called elements. The purpose of meshing is to approximate the behavior of a continuous system by representing it as a collection of discrete elements. Meshing is of utmost importance in finite element analysis as it determines the accuracy and reliability of the numerical solution. Through this tutorial, initially, the mesh and related terms associated with meshing are declared. Abaqus mesh module and meshing process are introduced. Then, two different meshing methodologies: Top-down and Bottom-up with meshing techniques available for each one of them are completely explained. Some of the advanced meshing techniques and edit mesh toolset are also included. The consideration of mesh verification as the final step in the meshing process, along with its criteria, is undertaken. All the tips and theories determined in this tutorial are implemented in Abaqus/CAE as a workshop to mesh several parts. This package intends to take your ability to mesh different parts to a higher level.

Creep Analysis in Abaqus

In engineering, creep phenomenon refers to the gradual deformation or strain that occurs in a material over time when it is subjected to a constant load or stress (usually lower than yield stress) at high temperatures. It is a time-dependent process that can lead to the permanent deformation and failure of the material if not properly accounted for in design considerations. Creep analysis is vital in engineering to understand material behavior under sustained loads and high temperatures. It enables predicting deformation and potential damage, ensuring safe and reliable structures. Industries like power generation and aerospace benefit from considering creep for long-term safety and durability of components. In this training package, you will learn about Creep phenomenon and its related matters; you will learn several methods to estimate the creep life of a system’s components, such as Larson-Miller; moreover, all Abaqus models for the creep simulation such as Time-Hardening law and Strain-Hardening law will be explained along with Creep subroutine; also, there would be practical examples to teach you how to do these simulations.

Johnson-Holmquist damage model in Abaqus

The Johnson-Holmquist damage model is used in solid mechanics to simulate the mechanical behavior of damaged brittle materials over a range of strain rates, including ceramics, rocks, and concrete. These materials typically exhibit gradual degradation under load due to the development of microfractures and typically have high compressive strength but low tensile strength. In this package, there are 13 practical examples to teach you how to use this damage model. The workshops are categorized into Ceramic materials, concrete, glass materials, and others.

Matrix Generation in ABAQUS

This package introduces matrix generation in Abaqus using an input file. Matrix generation in Abaqus refers to the process of creating and assembling matrices that represent the equations of motion or equilibrium for a finite element analysis including the stiffness matrix, mass matrix, damping matrix, and load matrix. This tutorial provides you with how to generate mass, stiffness, damping, and load matrices for the mathematical abstraction of model data. You can also use the generated matrices as input in other analyses done by Abaqus or other simulation software.

Abaqus Damage Model for Thermoplastic Polymers with UMAT Subroutine

Thermoplastic polymers are materials composed of long molecular chains primarily consisting of carbon. These polymers possess the unique ability to be shaped and molded under heat and pressure while retaining their stability once formed. This high formability makes them widely used in various industries, including furniture production, plumbing fixtures, automotive components, food packaging containers, and other consumer products. This package introduces a thermodynamically consistent damage model capable of accurately predicting failure in thermoplastic polymers.  The implementation of this model is explained through the use of an ABAQUS user material (UMAT) subroutine. The package is structured as follows. The introduction section Provides an overview of thermoplastic polymers and their mechanical properties. In the Theory section, the constitutive damage model and its formulation are reviewed. Then, an algorithm for numerically integrating the damage constitutive equations is presented in the Implementation section. In the UMAT Subroutine section, a detailed explanation of the flowchart and structure of the subroutine is provided. Finally, two simulation examples, namely the T-fitting burst pressure test and the D-Split test, are performed and the obtained results, are investigated. Notice: Software files and A full PDF guideline (Problem description, theory, ...) are available; Videos are coming soon.

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) structures simulation in Abaqus

Ultra-High Performance Concrete structures refer to structures that are constructed using Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). UHPC is a specialized type of concrete known for its exceptional strength, durability, and resistance to various environmental and loading conditions. UHPC structures can include bridges, high-rise buildings, infrastructure components, architectural elements, and more. Simulating UHPC structures is of significant importance. Through simulation, engineers can analyze and predict the structural behavior and performance of UHPC under different loading conditions. This includes assessing factors such as stress distribution, deformation, and failure mechanisms. By simulating UHPC structures, engineers can optimize the design, evaluate the structural integrity, and ensure the safety and reliability of these complex systems. In this project package, you will learn simulating the UHPC structures with many practical examples.

Simulation of shape control by piezoelectric in Abaqus

Piezoelectricity refers to the accumulation of electric charge in certain solid materials due to mechanical pressure. This phenomenon, known as the piezoelectric effect, is reversible. Some materials exhibit direct piezoelectricity, which involves the internal production of electric charge through the application of mechanical force, while others exhibit the inverse piezoelectric effect. By harnessing piezoelectrics, it becomes possible to control the geometrical changes of objects in response to external forces. However, it is important to note that utilizing this property in all situations would not be cost-effective. Therefore, it is more practical to use piezoelectric structures selectively, specifically in special applications. One approach to determining the optimal placement of piezoelectric elements for controlling the geometric shape of various objects under internal or external forces involves utilizing the Abaqus and MATLAB software linkage. This software combination, along with optimization algorithms such as the particle swarm optimization algorithm, can be employed to achieve the desired objectives. By leveraging these tools and data, the primary goal of controlling object shape can be successfully accomplished. In this training package, you will learn about piezoelectric and piezoelectric modeling in Abaqus, the particle swarm optimization algorithm, linking Abaqus and MATLAB, and how to use these tools for shape control. Notice: Software files and A full PDF guideline (Problem description, theory, ...) are available; Videos are coming soon.

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) beams simulation in Abaqus

Notice: This package will be available one week after purchase. UHPC (Ultra-High Performance Concrete) is an advanced type of concrete known for its exceptional strength, durability, and resistance. It consists of a dense matrix of fine particles, high-strength aggregates, and a low water-to-cement ratio. UHPC offers superior performance and is used in construction projects where high-strength and durability are required. UHPC (Ultra-High Performance Concrete) beams are advanced structural elements known for their exceptional strength, durability, and resistance. Simulating UHPC beams using software like Abaqus is crucial for evaluating their behavior under different loads and optimizing their design. With Abaqus simulations, engineers can analyze the structural response, stresses, and deformations of UHPC beams, ensuring they meet safety standards and design requirements. In this project package, you will learn how to simulate UHPC beams in 6 practical workshops.