What is additive manufacturing or 3D printing?
Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is the process of constructing a three-dimensional object using a computer-aided design (CAD) model or a digital 3D model. It involves adding layers of material on top of each other until the desired product is created. This can be achieved through various methods in which materials are joined, deposited, and solidified under computer control. The materials used can be in the form of plastics, liquids, or powder grains that are fused together. The process of 3D printing using Abaqus modeling is fully explained in this training package.
Simulating 3D printing in Abaqus
Why do we need to simulate 3D printing in Abaqus? The same reasons apply as for other simulations. It helps us check for residual stress, temperature and thermal conditions, and deflection in the model, among other factors. Additionally, simulating the printing process allows us to assess whether the machine’s settings are suitable for our model’s conditions before printing, thus avoiding unnecessary costs. This includes considering factors like material properties and temperature.
This training package on 3D printing in Abaqus provides a method utilizes the ADM (Additive Manufacturing) plug-in developed by Dassault Systemes to simulate the 3D printing process.
Using AM Modeler plug-in for additive manufacturing
The “AM Modeler” plug-in offers a user-friendly interface for simulating additive manufacturing. It minimizes the risk of errors by allowing users to input the necessary data, create a job, and initiate the simulation. The plug-in employs two methods for simulating 3D printing: eigenstrain and thermomechanical. Each method offers different process types that users can select based on their specific requirements. The eigenstrain method includes trajectory-based and pattern-based processes, while the thermomechanical method encompasses trajectory-based powder bed fabrication, pattern-based powder bed fabrication, laser direct energy deposition, and fusion deposition modeling. The focus of this training package is on the thermomechanical method.
The thermomechanical approach involves conducting a thermal-stress analysis of the additive manufacturing process in a sequential manner. Initially, a heat transfer analysis is performed, followed by a static structural analysis that utilizes the temperature fields obtained from the thermal analysis. This simulation allows for precise control over processing conditions in terms of time and space, resulting in an accurate and realistic solution. However, as the time and spatial resolution increase, the computational cost of the simulation also increases.
The heat transfer analysis must simulate the progressive material deposition, progressive heating of deposited material, and progressive cooling of the printed part. The stress analysis is influenced by temperatures obtained from the heat transfer analysis, and similar progressive material deposition methods can be applied. Temperature-dependent material properties can be utilized to obtain precise stress results.
Workshop: 3D printing simulation with Fused deposition modeling (FDM) and Laser direct energy deposition (LDED) method using the AM plug-in
The Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM) method is a 3D printing technique that involves extruding melted filament layer by layer to create a 3D object. In this method, a filament is fed into a heated extruder (nozzle), which melts the filament and deposits it layer by layer onto a build platform based on the 3D model. The material then cools and solidifies, resulting in the final object.
In this workshop, the model’s geometry is presented, followed by an explanation of the layering process and details such as the dimensions of the bead. Material properties are introduced, and data related to the nozzle, including speed, is provided.
The workshop involves depositing the material using the element progressive activation technique (Material Deposition) and heating it with a moving heat source. Various types of material deposition and moving heat source methods are explained in detail during the workshop.
It would be helpful to see Abaqus Documentation to understand how it would be hard to start an Abaqus simulation without any Abaqus tutorial. Also, be careful with the units of values you insert in Abaqus. Yes! Abaqus don’t have units but the values you enter must have consistent units. You can learn more about the system of units in Abaqus.