What are UHPC beams?
UHPC (Ultra-High Performance Concrete) is an advanced type of concrete known for its exceptional strength, durability, and resistance. It is characterized by a dense matrix of fine particles, high-strength aggregates, and a low water-to-cement ratio. UHPC offers superior mechanical properties compared to conventional concrete, including high compressive strength, enhanced ductility, and excellent resistance to corrosion and impact.
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UHPC beams refer to structural elements, typically in the form of beams, made using UHPC. These beams exhibit exceptional load-carrying capacity, allowing for longer spans and reduced cross-sectional dimensions compared to traditional concrete beams. UHPC beams are known for their high strength-to-weight ratio, improved crack resistance, and enhanced durability.
The applications of UHPC and UHPC beams are diverse and expanding. Some notable applications include:
- Bridge Construction: UHPC beams are used in the construction of bridge decks, girders, and connections, offering enhanced durability and load-carrying capacity.
- High-Rise Buildings: UHPC is employed in the construction of columns and shear walls in high-rise buildings, providing superior strength and enhanced seismic performance.
- Infrastructure Rehabilitation: UHPC is used for retrofitting and repairing existing structures, increasing their load-carrying capacity and extending their service life.
- Noise Barriers: UHPC panels are utilized in noise barrier walls along highways and railways due to their excellent acoustic insulation properties.
- Architectural Elements: UHPC is used to create intricate architectural elements such as facades, cladding panels, and decorative structures due to its ability to achieve complex shapes and textures.
Workshop 1: Four points bending simulation of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC)
In this tutorial, the focus is on investigating the Numerical simulation of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) under four points bending using Abaqus. While concrete is widely used in construction, it has limitations such as low tensile strength and brittleness. Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is an advanced type of concrete that shows promise in overcoming these limitations. UHPC exhibits exceptional compressive strength, surpassing 21.7 ksi (150 Mpa), and flexural strength exceeding 0.72 ksi (10 Mpa) after 28 days of curing. The concept of UHPC was initially developed by Richard and Cheyrezy and was first produced in the early 1990s at Bouygues Laboratory in France. In the simulation, the concrete beam is represented as a three-dimensional solid part.
The study of structures involving Ultra-High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) can be conducted through simulation using commercial Finite Element (FE) software. A three-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation is employed to model the failure process. The CDP (Crack Development Plasticity) model is utilized to characterize the behavior of the concrete beam. Material parameters, including the modulus of elasticity (E), Poisson’s ratio (v), and CDP parameters, are considered in the analysis. For cracked concrete, a constant value is assigned to Poisson’s ratio in the CDP model.
The CDP parameters, such as the dilation angle (w), shape factor (Kc), stress ratio (rb0/rc0), eccentricity, and viscosity parameter, play crucial roles in the simulation. A general static step is used, with modifications made to the convergence model to ensure a reliable force-displacement diagram. Surface-to-surface contact with appropriate contact properties is established between the concrete beam and rigid bodies. Fixed boundary conditions are applied to the two bottom rigid bodies, while displacement is assigned as a boundary condition to the two top rigid bodies. Employing a fine mesh is essential to achieve accurate results.
Upon completion of the simulation, various results, including stress, strain, displacement, and the force-displacement diagram, can be obtained for analysis and evaluation.
Workshop 2: Reinforced concrete beams strengthened with UHPC structure simulation (flexural behavior analysis)
This tutorial focuses on conducting the simulation of the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) using Abaqus. The strengthening of concrete structures has gained significant importance not only for deteriorated concrete structures but also for enhancing the performance of new concrete structural members. Strengthening concrete structures finds extensive applications, especially in critical structures such as power stations, nuclear plants, and marine structures. Demolition of these structures is economically and technically unfeasible unless rehabilitation and strengthening techniques fail to provide the required performance. A relatively recent material, known as ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPFRC), has been developed and utilized for both the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In this simulation, the concrete beam and UHPC cover are represented as three-dimensional solid parts. The bars and strips are modeled as three-dimensional wire parts.
The Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model is employed to represent the behavior of the concrete beam. This model is based on continuum plasticity and incorporates damage mechanisms specific to concrete. It considers two primary failure modes: tensile cracking and compressive crushing of the concrete material. For the strips and bars, a steel material with elastic-plastic behavior is chosen.
The UHPC cover is modeled using the CDP plasticity model, and the necessary data for this model are obtained from a referenced paper. The simulation utilizes a general static step, with adjustments made to the convergence model to ensure accurate results. Surface-to-surface contact with friction is implemented as a contact property between the concrete beam and rigid bodies. The bars and strips are embedded within the concrete matrix. Fixed boundary conditions are applied to the two bottom rigid bodies, while displacement with a smooth amplitude is specified for the top rigid body.
To obtain accurate outcomes, it is important to use a fine mesh in the simulation. After the simulation, various results such as stress, strain, tensile and compression damage, displacement, and more can be obtained and analyzed.
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Workshop 3: UHPC beam with CFRP pipe core static bending simulation
This tutorial focuses on examining the simulation of static bending in a UHPC beam with a CFRP pipe core using Abaqus. The concrete beam is represented as a three-dimensional solid part, while the CFRP pipe core is modeled as a three-dimensional shell part. A rigid body part is employed to act as a force body.
Composite structures are widely recognized as a means to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of structural systems. In recent years, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structures have gained significant traction in civil engineering applications. The appealing characteristics of FRP include its high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent durability (especially in terms of corrosion resistance), and ease of installation. While concrete remains the most commonly used construction material, it still has limitations such as low tensile strength and brittleness. Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC), an advanced form of concrete, has the potential to overcome these limitations.
To model the behavior of Ultra-High Performance Concrete, the Concrete Damage Plasticity model is employed, allowing for the consideration of both tensile and compression behaviors. For modeling CFRP composite material, the lamina elasticity approach and Hashin’s damage criterion are utilized to predict damage during bending. The simulation employs a general static step with modifications made to the convergence model to prevent premature convergence issues. Instead of surface-to-surface contact, perfect contact is assumed between the CFRP pipe and the inner surface of the concrete. A general contact algorithm with friction properties is utilized for all other contacts within the contact domain. Fixed boundary conditions are assigned to the two surfaces of the UHPC, while displacement boundaries are applied to the rigid body, serving as a load control model. It is important to utilize a fine mesh in order to obtain accurate results.
Upon completion of the simulation, various results such as stress, strain, damage assessment, failure analysis, and force-displacement diagrams become available for analysis.
Workshop 4: UHPC beam reinforced with GFRP bars dynamic bending simulation
This tutorial focuses on exploring the dynamic bending simulation of a UHPC beam reinforced with GFRP bars using Abaqus. The UHPC beam is represented as a three-dimensional solid part, while the cohesive layer acting as an interface between the UHPC and GFRP bars is modeled as another three-dimensional solid part. The GFRP bars themselves are modeled as three-dimensional solid parts. Additionally, two rigid parts are employed to apply the load to the structure.
To model the behavior of UHPC material, the Concrete Damaged Plasticity model is employed. This model takes into account both compression and tension data to simulate the response of UHPC under dynamic bending loads. For modeling the cohesive layer, elastic data types such as traction and traction-separation laws are utilized to consider failure. The behavior of GFRP is modeled using elastic data represented as engineering constants.
Given the large deformations and separation that occur during bending between the UHPC and GFRP bars, the dynamic explicit step is deemed suitable for this type of analysis. The general contact algorithm with friction as a contact property is chosen to consider all contacts within the simulation. Perfect or ideal contact is assumed for the surfaces of the concrete and cohesive layer, as well as between the GFRP and cohesive layer. Fixed boundary conditions are assigned to the two bottom surfaces of the beam, while displacement with amplitude is applied to the two top rigid bodies to introduce the desired load. It is important to use a fine mesh to achieve accurate results.
Upon completion of the simulation, various results including stress, strain, plastic strain, displacement, force-displacement diagrams, and more become available for analysis.
Workshop 5: UHPC beam reinforced with Jute-Epoxy lamina three-point bending test
This tutorial focuses on examining the simulation of a three-point bending test for a UHPC beam reinforced with Jute-Epoxy lamina using Abaqus. The UHPC beam is represented as a three-dimensional solid part, while the Jute-Epoxy lamina is represented as a three-dimensional shell part consisting of four layers. To apply displacement in the load section, a rigid body shell part is utilized as a means of loading.
In recent times, researchers and engineers have been exploring the application of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) for rehabilitating and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The exceptional material properties of UHPC, including its high tensile and compressive strengths, ductility, and durability, make it an appealing choice for various engineering structures, particularly in bridge engineering. To model the nonlinear behavior of UHPC in compression and tension, the widely used Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model available in ABAQUS was employed. This model enables the prediction of tensile and compressive damage during the analysis. Jute-based green composites have gained attention due to their favorable properties, such as a suitable strength-to-weight ratio, high damping ratio, low cost, and corrosion resistance. There is a growing interest in natural and environmentally friendly materials, as well as a desire to reduce the cost of synthetic fibers commonly used in polymer composite synthesis. Many researchers have started focusing on natural fiber composites, also known as bio composites, which have found widespread use in the automotive industry and in various interior and exterior car parts. To model the Jute-epoxy lamina, a conventional shell with four layers is employed. The analysis is performed using the general static step, with some modifications made to the convergence model to prevent premature non-convergence. The surface-to-surface contact approach with friction as the contact property is used to define the contact between the rigid body and the concrete part. Ideal contact is selected to define the interaction between the UHPC beam and the Jute-epoxy lamina. Fixed boundary conditions are applied to both ends of the beam, and displacement is imposed on the rigid body. To obtain accurate results, a fine mesh is recommended. After the simulation, a wide range of results, including stress, strain, tensile and compressive damage, force-displacement diagrams, and more, are available for analysis.
Workshop 6: Interior voided RC UHPC beam dynamic bending simulation
This tutorial focuses on investigating the simulation of a dynamic bending test for an interior voided RC UHPC beam using Abaqus. The UHPC beam, made of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete, is represented as a three-dimensional solid part that includes interior sphere voids. The steel bars and strips are represented as three-dimensional wire parts. To apply the load on the top surface of the UHPC beam, rigid bodies are employed as hydraulic jacks.
The voided beam exhibits significantly lower weight compared to a solid beam with the same flexural strength. In this example, the Concrete Damage Plasticity material model is utilized to account for the nonlinear behavior of the UHPC beam during the bending test. The compression and tension data, along with their associated damage, are considered to capture crack propagation and stiffness degradation. For the steel elements such as bars and strips, a material model with elastic-plastic behavior is chosen. Both the static and dynamic solvers can be employed, but due to convergence issues in the static procedure, the analysis time becomes excessively long. Therefore, in this tutorial, the dynamic explicit step is selected as it offers a more efficient approach. Surface-to-surface contact with frictional properties is utilized between the rigid bodies and the top surface of the beam. The bars and strips are embedded within the concrete beam. Fixed boundary conditions are applied to the two sides of the beam, while displacement is imposed on the two top rigid bodies. To ensure accurate results, a fine mesh is recommended. Following the simulation, various results such as stress, strain, tensile and compressive damage, force-displacement diagrams, and more become available for analysis.
Ultra-High Performance Concrete Abaqus