# Abaqus for beginners (Structural engineers in the field of civil engineering)

In general, civil engineers use finite element software to investigate a structure under different loads due to their high accuracy and high accordance with reality. Among the few civil engineering software that is based on FEM, Abaqus is the most well-known. In the present Abaqus training package, we have presented all software skills that a civil engineer needs when he wants to use his/her engineering knowledge in computer-aided designing.

ABAQUS for beginners education package is an ideal package of CAE simulation for students, scholars, researchers, and professors.

This simulation package is helpful for beginner students; it has also spoken of many important tips for the old users. In addition, it presents theories that govern it and different examples for understanding issues. Furthermore, explanations have been made in every lesson.

This lesson first, talks about CAE importance among other methods of computer design, analyzing, and production of a part or product. Then, the outline of software and all of its common options and simulation procedures are explained.

**One of the important issues in using ABAQUS software is unit determination. This lesson explains about common units and compatible ones and obtaining methods of it.**

Finally, a 2D truss under concentrated force is simulated. In this example, all the simulation procedures are explained step by step. Also, useful tips in different modules will be explained such as assigning material, loading, observing common outputs like stress, strain and, in addition, getting reports of desired items such as nodes displacement.

This lesson is very attractive to the users of finite elements. In this lesson, you will be familiar with the finite element completely. First, starts with some simple examples like meshing an aerial structure, calculating the circumference of a circle, and displacement calculation of a structure with geometric complication. Then, it discusses using finite element tools to solve problems step by step.

**Furthermore, this lesson explains about different types of elements in terms of shape, element and node, freedom degree, and finite element is used for two types of problems. They and FEM instruction will be described to solve a difficult shape step by step. The users must know that using the FEM method has its advantages and disadvantages.**

They will be explained completely with examples and figures. In the end, the degree of freedom and plane stress element and plane strain with problems that can use these elements will be described completely. It is necessary to know that one of the most important issues of using simulation software is studying convergence. The description of studying convergence is the last theory content in this lesson.

Two workshops are investigated in this lesson: In the first one, a three-dimension truss is simulated to model a 3D structure in space, using the software tree diagram, reading results, etc. In the second one, a sheet undergoes plane stress and the notes related to plane elements, applying tensional extensive load, reading results in a curved path, symmetric condition and model simplification, software technique for investigating convergence, and so on will be studied.

- This lesson focuses on elements. At first, it explains the types of characteristics of elements including family, degree of freedom, number of nodes, formulation, and integration completely. Then, the beam element and its items of use will introduce. The beam element can be used in two different formulations, Bernoulli and Timoshenko with different theories and different applications which will be explained in detail.
- In the first workshop, a single clamped beam under concentrated force is simulated. The results from simulation and formulation analysis will be compared.
- In the second workshop, beam simulation with the beam element and continuum element will be done and compared. The workshop describes the simulation with continuum element, beam element simulation tips, extracting moment results, force along the beam and cross-section, and parts observation with different colors; and also, it explains beam modeling in a dynamic analysis which includes loading, and getting HTML results from simulation procedure.

- This lesson is one of the most important lessons in this package. In this lesson, Explicit and standard solvers will be completely discussed. In this study, in the first step, it will be explained to choose an appropriate solver for each example by considering solver capability.
- The key differences between these two solvers are described in solving different types of problems and the field element type of analysis, using contact, solving method, and so on. In the next step, the influence of mesh size on the speed of analysis for the two solvers is investigated.
- It has been tried in a simple problem the solving process with two solvers, standard and explicit, to be completely explained. Therefore you will be completely familiar with the function of these two solvers.
- A deep drawing analysis is done by using the explicit solver in the workshp. In this workshop, different contents are explained as listed below: rigid body and related points, using information extracted from simple tensile stress in a laboratory in the inputs of software, Axsim element, and related points, defining contact, assembling, defining plasticity and so on.

- In this lesson, very important tips about explicit solvers are studied. In the first step, different types of analysis are explained which are done by the dynamic explicit solver. Furthermore, the concept of stable time increment and calculation method will be described with examples completely and precisely.
- In some problems, the speed of analysis can be increased with the help of different techniques such as mass-scale and load rate scaling. These two techniques are explained completely. Some tips are passed on calculating optimal values for use in these two techniques. In the end, some points are explained about energy balance and remaining the problem in the quasi-static (versus Dynamic) state.
- In the first workshop, the optimal time of deep drawing analysis is calculated and applied. In this analysis, two methods of increasing the analysis speed such as mass-scale and rate scaling are studied.
- The plane strain element is used in the second workshop, and methods of increasing the analysis speed are investigated. Furthermore, rolling modeling tips to decrease the thickness along the rolling shelf are presented. In the end, energy balance is checked to prevent it from becoming dynamic.

- This lesson will discuss linear analysis versus nonlinear analysis. At first, the lesson will explain natural frequency analysis and related formulas step by step to obtain the answer. Also, the influence of the natural frequency analysis, capabilities, and the speed of each one is described. In the next stage, buckling analysis, the application, and the effect on other processes are introduced.
- To become familiar with the buckling process, an Euler beam is studied, and the buckling load is calculated by solving differential equations. In the following, the general solving method of buckling equations, its usage in the finite element software and, different types of solving techniques and capabilities of the software to process buckling load in various structures is investigated.
- In the first workshop, the optimal time of solving the reduced beam problem under shear load will calculate. Also, you will study how to extract buckling load, mode shapes, and moment of inertia. Furthermore, you will learn to capture a figure or get the results from the model, showing node numbers and elements, and post-buckling behavior by using the Riks method will be investigated. This lesson explains the necessary points to define damage using buckling analysis in a post-buckling analysis. In the next workshop, the buckling of a tube under external fluid pressure is investigated.
- In the third workshop, the natural frequency of a water transfer tube is processed to determine what frequency the resonance phenomenon or a problem will occur if the vibration has happened in the tube, which can be applied by artificial external forces or natural forces like an earthquake.

This lesson is talking about full tips for modeling adhesive in Abaqus software. (This lesson is presented elastic equations and, adhesive damage along with full explanation and theories)

Also, according to the two methods, element-based and surface-based, some matters can be investigated as listed below: different kinds of problems that can be done by these two methods, applicable models in any of these problems, tips about modeling in modules, output definition, different elements, convergence and, issues about divergence. In addition, the difference between these two methods is studied in different steps of pre-processing and post-processing in full detail. In the first workshop, a single-lap joint, an adhesive between two aluminum, will be under tensile loading by the Element-based method. The damage initiation and progressive damage in the forms of linear properties degradation are investigated. In the modeling, necessary tips have been given for simulation. In the second workshop, a concrete brick wall with building materials which has similar properties with adhesive is going to be underweight loading, concentrate force and, the compressive force from different directions; and damage initiation and progressive damage will be studied exponentially by the surface-based method. In the third workshop, the adhesive between two beams is defined and linear progressive damage is investigated by the surface-based method and Abaqus standard solver. One of the matters in this analysis is solving the divergence problems with the help of the required techniques

This lesson explains modeling reinforced beam-column (with bar and composite) FRP. All the concepts and related theories will be discussed at the beginning of the lesson. Concentrated concepts in this lesson are listed below: damage and continuum damage, ductile damage of metals, Hashin damage initiation and progressive damage based on energy method for composites, concrete definition, elastic properties, concrete plastic properties definition, and its behavior in tensile and compression and, progressive damage behavior in tensile and pressure of the concrete. Outputs of this workshop are listed below: investigating different stress and strain fields, displacement, and also investigating damage initiation in metals, composites and, concretes. ** ** ** **

- In this lesson which is part of the simulation of composite damage package, first, damage definition and its application is explained. Then, the lecturer will investigate the differences between microscopic and macroscopic damage. Types of damage start scale and continuation of damage of composites are examined.
- In this lesson’s workshop, the start of damage and continuation of damage according to Hashin scale in a plane with a hole under ununiformed loading will be done. Also, other matters are explained, such as composite elastic characteristics definition, required parameters for the start of Hashin damage scale, needed settings for field output to observe results and see the results in layers for fiber and matrix independently.
- You could see different examples about modeling composites and investigating the damage in these materials in the package. Other packages are available about composites material such as damage in 3D elements, fatigue analysis and, a complete package about these materials.

This lesson discusses hardening in Abaqus software. First, the hardening concept, typical types of hardening, and related equations are fully defined. Also, several phenomena are described, such as the Bushinger effect, cyclic hardening with shakedown, and ratcheting and relaxation. In the end, the hysteresis graph and how to draw the graph will be explained. In this lesson, two workshops will present. In the first one, the effect of the earthquake on a brace or applying kinematic curve and applied load in the top section are examined. A combined curve with applying force on the lower section is investigated in the second workshop. These two workshops present step-by-step modeling, investigating different kinds of output contours, and hysteresis graphs.

5out of 5Amira Farooqi–Thank you for your package. It gave me good knowledge about the Abaqus simulation for civil engineering topics. I am very excited about the new version of this package. please let me lnow when it is ready.

Experts Of CAE Assistant Group–It will be ready a few days later. It would be exciting!!

5out of 5Asahi Tanaka–The teacher has an excellent accent. Subtitles also helped me a lot. thank you